The set of graphics below show first what has been established previously, the first two, and then the extension of the inner smaller derived grid, in (1/sq.root two) relationship, using Blackness Castle, and the simple use of grid diagonals, (2 by 1) and (3 by 1) to find a remarkable system linked to the work of William S. Buehler, whose original work, the ''20 mile radius'' system centred on St. Mary's Chapel. The square on this circle, with The Bass Rock as north-east corner, and the subsidiary system oriented on North Berwick Law, and indeed another with Arther's' Seat summit as main North axis at the half-radius point, (which incidentally has Rosslyn Chapel on it, discussed previously) with a spread of approximately 2.5 degrees is shown in the first sketch.

Sketch One

This shows the original circle and square grid derived from it, with a few points marked, St. Marys Chapel(NT275 570) in the centre, The Bass Rock(NT602 873) at the north-east corner, with North Berwick Law(NT556 842) indicated, Seafield(NT279 885) and Dryhope Towers(NT267 247) marking the north and south points respectively. The Arther's' Seat area is marked, and is at the half-radius point, but not indicated as such, but may be considered further, but later! The derived inner grid is found naturally in the geometry!

Sketch Two

This shows the smaller, inner grid, in (1/sq.root two) relationship, with Blackness Castle indicated at the north-west corner.

The length of side of this grid is where the Scot's measure system reveals the phi connection, discussed in previous post. Namely, (16* sq.root 3* 33) / (2* 37) equals 12.35842 miles(S), (half of which is 6.17921).

Incidentally, the discrepancy from phi exact is 6.5 feet, which is lost in the practical margins of error in my method. I work at all times with the limit in practice suggested as the optimum that medieval surveyors could achieve by known methods, by Professor Lind, in connection with the Bornholm work of Erling Haagensen and Henry Lincoln, in The Templar's Secret Island. This limit is 1 in 2000, or 99.95%, as discussed previously. 6.17921 mile(S) is 99.982% of 6.18034 miles(S).

The Scot's measure system I use is that defined by John Reid, 1683, in The Scot's Gard'ner, with the Scot's mile being in the ratio of 37 : 33 with the English/Imperial system. Inches and feet are common. Which raises many questions, not considered here!

Also, extreme accuracy that can be expected from O.S. maps is one metre, as explained to me by a professional cartographer friend, so any coordinates used here will be less than this. I would allow myself a discrepancy of up to ten metres. 6.5 feet is less than two metres (1.98 metres, to be precise)!

The issue of what accuracy the designers/surveyors worked to is not known, but the number of sites/points that are 'spot-on' indicates they got lucky very often.

I have been encouraged to allow for 'telluric'* off-set, and/or geographic/landscape practicalities in the past. I have allowed myself some leeway as at Blackness Castle(NT055 792), or Seafield Tower(NT280 885), where the exact geometric point is off the coast. I have also allowed the consideration of the 2.5 degree spread, and that these two points sit within this spread, as marker points. And, as at Arther's' Seat, the natural area of Holyrood Park, to be a 'unit-point-area', when considering such distances as the 200 mile plus spanning most of Scotland, and previously discussed.

* related to earth forces in some way! No further comment, for now!

These diagrams are simple representations of the geometry found so far.

Sketch Three

In late 1999 I moved to Selkirk to write up my findings till then. As previously mentioned I got connected to the Internet, made contact with William S. Buehler, and the geometry expanded, commensurate with my growing awareness of the landscape of the Tweed Valley and the countryside between Selkirk and Edinburgh. I was a member of the Sauniere Society at the time, and was privileged to hear Alistair Moffat discussing his book, Arthur And The Lost Kingdom, where my attention was drawn to Kelso, and the Roxburghe Castle area, east of Selkirk, where the Tweed and Teviot rivers meet.

On investigation I found that Kelso Abbey(NT727 339) was at the corner of the (2 by 1) grid point, south-east of St. Mary's Chapel:

A quick calculation here, to establish the accuracy of this. I am doing this from memory, and only using a list of O.S. coordinates, and re-doing the calculations as I go. And, I am aware that Kelso Abbey is not the exact point, as it is in the Schiehallion system described previously, but that a point closer to Roxburghe Castle(NT713 337) is the exact point. I shall first consider Kelso Abbey, to establish that we are in the right area:

3275.00 6570.19 St. Mary's Chapel

3728.87 6337.92 Kelso Abbey

--------- ----------

-453.87 232.27

Us usual using Pythagoras' Theorem, a grid unit distance of 509.85 hundreds of metres; which converts to 31.681 miles(E). Converting to Scots measure; using (33/37) gives 28.2557 miles(S).

What needs to be established is the approximation to the ( 2 by 1) diagonal which this distance represents, and the angle to O.S. grid:

We know that the side of the grid square is 12.38542 miles(S), (6.17921 * 2), and that the ( 2 by 1 ) diagonal is side times square root five, and the angle has a tangent of (1/2), or its complementary angle with a tangent of (2/1), which are 26.565 degrees, and 63.435 degrees respectively!

(6.17921 * 2) * square root five = 27.6343 miles(S). This is 0.6214 miles(S) short of Kelso Abbey!

The angle to O.S. grid has as tangent: (453.87/232.27) = 62.8987 degrees. or its complement to 90 degrees of 27.1013 degrees. This latter figure can be added to 90 to allow comparison with the north axis of orientation of the O.S. grid; 90 + 27.1013 = 117.1013. The exact angle for this vector should be (90 + 26.56505) 116.56505 degrees. The difference is 0.53625 degrees, well within the 2.5 degree spread discussed above!

Kelso Abbey could well be considered a marker point, for this grid!

I am content to leave this for now. Should anyone care to do some calculations for themselves I give a few more points around Roxburgh Castle, and also Floors Castle just to the north of Roxburgh Castle:

3716.82 6339.96 'hillock' east of Roxburgh Castle

3710.00 6335.22 'hillock' south of Roxburgh Castle

3713.04 6337.38 mean of two previous

3711.12 6346.62 Floors Castle

Sketch Four

In this part Ericstane Hill(NT059 122) shall be considered in relation to Kelso Abbey as marking the (3 by 1) diagonal south- west, and St. Mary's Chapel, as the (2 by 1) point south and west.

Ericstane Hill is north of Moffat between the A701, and the A74(M), with the 'Devil's Beef Tub' where stolen cattle were apparently penned in seclusion, in the valley to the north-east. It is the area where the Annan river rises, and close to the source of the Tweed. There is a Roman fortlet on its flank, with also the Eric Stane and monument.

3728.87 6337.92 Kelso Abbey

3059.81 6121.89 EricStane Hill(summit)

---------- ----------

669.06 216.03

By Pythagoras' theorem; 703.072 O.S.units(hundred metres); 43.68687 miles(E); 38.964 miles(S).

Now, the diagonal of a (3 by 1) rectangle is square root ten, so dividing we get 12.32132 miles(S), against the square unit side of 12.3584 miles(S), a difference of 0.03708 m(S), a discrepancy of 71.2 ells, or 73 yards, too short.

In real terms it is a discrepancy of 230 yards over the full distance, not great, not bad, good enough for immediate purposes.

The angle to O.S. grid is tangent (669.06/216.03), which gives an angle of 72.1055, and complement to 90 degrees of 17.8945.

The angle of the line from St. Mary's Chapel to Kelso Abbey, from above was found to be 27.1013 degrees.

Now, interestingly, the adjacent angles of a (2 by 1) and (3 by 1) is 45 degrees exactly; so 27.1013 plus 17.8945 equals 44.9958, 45 - 0.0042 degrees

As a check, Ericstane Hill can be compared to St. Mary's Chapel:

3275.00 6570.19 St. Mary's Chapel

3059.81 6121.89 EricStane Hill(summit)

---------- ----------

215.19 448.30

By Pythagoras' theorem 497.2722 O.S. grid units(hundred metres); or 30.899miles(E); or 27.5586 miles(S).

Dividing by square root five(the length of a (2 by 1) diagonal) gives 12.3246 miles(S), a discrepancy of 0.03381 miles(S) from grid square length, 12.3584 miles(S), some 65 ells, or 67 yards, short, similar in scale to the Kelso Abbey measure.

The angle to O.S grid is tangent (215.19/448.3) = 25.64163 degrees, which added to the St. Mary's Chapel - Kelso Abbey angle of 62.8987 degrees is 88.54 degrees, against the 90 degrees it should be. a shortfall of 1.46 degrees, well within the spread of 2.5 degrees, disussed above.

I could 'tweak' things a bit, and get the exact spots at both Kelso and Ericstane, and have done so previously, it's all in my notes somewhere, but for now I shall leave this, content in having established these two areas as containing the corners of the grid centred on St. Mary's Chapel discussed above.

Sketch Five

This sketch shows the next task, establishing the (3 by 1) axis through St. Mary's Chapel, from the mid-point of the Kelso - Ericstane line shown here:

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